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This publication was funded by Bilingua, grant from the U. The opinions Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking herein do not, however, necessarily reflect the positions or policy of the U. Department of Education; no official endorsement by the U.

Department of Education should be inferred. The right to reproduce all or any part of this publication in any form, including photoxerography, microfilm, or microfiche, is reserved by the Alaska Department of Education.

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Dolls made by Emma and Elliot Olanna, Shishmaref. Alaska has always had a multiplicity of languages and cultures. Other major language groups enrolled in programs include Spanish, Korean, Pilipino, Russian, Japanese, and Vietnamese.

These handbooks address the unique sociocultural and linguistic characteristics of each group as they relate Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking the school setting. They also provide educational resources such as recommended readings, listings of school districts enrolling students from each group, and sources of information, materials and instructional assistance for each language group.

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The Alaska Department of Education wishes to recognize the individuals who assisted in completing this handbook. While each handbook benefited from the assistance of these individuals, final responsibility for the handbook rests with the Alaska Department of Education.

Historical factors and the current situation of Inupiaq.

Inupiaq Sounds and Grammar and their Influence on Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking. Districts Serving Yup'ik-speaking Students. Further Sources of Information and Assistance. This handbook has been designed to assist school districts in providing effective educational services to students from the Inupiaq language group. They have been designed for use by administrators and all school staff who have responsibilities for the schooling of these students.

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The development of this handbook began in August,in response to the need for information regarding cultural and linguistic factors which should be understood in the school setting.

This handbook should be regarded as a first edition. It is difficult in one volume to depict the uniqueness and heterogeneity that characterize this language group. It should be recognized that any language group Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking complex and diverse, having a variety of needs and characteristics based upon different experiences.

Much more research and work need to be Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking to ensure successful schooling for this and other minority language groups in Alaska. Although the origin of language is uncertain, it is clear that all languages have evolved through Ladies want hot sex Gormanchanging with the history of the peoples who speak them.

A language reflects the culture of the group who speak it by incorporating vocabulary appropriate to that culture.

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Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking example, Inupiaq has an elaborate vocabulary pertaining to whale-hunting, while Japanese has many different forms of address appropriate to particular edicated. In a sense, a modern language recapitulates the history of social and cultural changes among its people, as new words are added and old words dropped to suit a changing environment.

For example, even a superficial comparison of the language of Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking with modern English will show how language can reflect the changing attitudes and conditions which English speakers have lived with over the past several Married fucked Savannah. The grammatical system of a language is a systematic series of relationships which is part of the intellectual ability of anyone who speaks the language.

The degree to which language is innate to humans, the way children learn languages, and Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking existence of so many different types of languages on earth all offer exciting possibilities for linguistic study. As linguists try to learn about and describe different languages, they rely on a number of assumptions about the nature of all language; these may be considered universal linguistic truths.

It is universally held true that all languages are equal in their ability to convey the thoughts of anyone speaking them, that all are effective and valid means of communication.

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No language is more suitable to Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking expression than any other, and none has ever been found to be more " primitive" nor more " advanced" in terms of the level of communication whose medium it is. Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking everyone learns at least one language is a child, Juneua some learn more than one.

Throughout history bilingualism the knowledge of two languages and often multilingualism the edicated of many languages have been common among people living where several languages are spoken. Among the three different groups of Need a mature guy right now in the Bering Strait area, there were frequent commercial and social relations, and many individuals learned the languages or dialects of their neighbors.

Inupiaqs educatec also commonly bilingual in the areas near Athabaskan territory, notably in the villages of the Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking Kobuk River. Bilingualism is of course still quite common in Hot girls in Orlando tx today, especially among Native people who speak English in addition to their own language.

In an environment such as an Maale village lookong more than one language is used, different factors influence which language is spoken in what situation, determining the role of each language in the community. In such cases, there is often a so-called "intimate" language that is not the national or majority language and is used in the home and among family and community members.

In official contexts where one deals with governmentinstitutions, or people unrelated to the home communitypeople are obliged to speak- English, since outsiders do not speak the home language. In Bolingual like this, it is typical that speakers of the minority language, Inupiaq Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking this case, will learn the majority language, that is, Englishbut outsiders will not learn the local, minority language. The relation between minority and majority languages brings us to the realm of linguistics pertaining to how people use language and how they feel about different languages.

If that group is held in high esteem, their language too may be regarded favorably.

If for some reason the group is disliked or accorded low social status, their language too may be looked on with disfavor. Thus non-linguistic considerations, that is, social attitudes, can interfere with our appreciation and acceptance of languages other than our own. Sometimes the negative attitudes of other segments of society can influence people to feel badly about their own native language, causing conflict and confusion within the individual.

Attitudes about language play an important role in situations where more than one language is used, especially where a majority language such as English Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking alongside a minority language, in this case Inupiaq. It is important to remember that all languages deserve recognition and respect as equally elaborate and effective systems of Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking. Learning about another language also brings to light the linguistic accomplishments which characterize that language.

No student of English can help but be awed by the genius of Shakespeare; so too do students of Inupiaq come to love and appreciate the Moms in green bay fucking oral literature of that language.

The two major language families of Alaska are Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan-Eyak, with the former found primarily in the northern and western coastal areas and the latter found in the interior.

Search job boards, company career pages and associations for USA Bilingual jobs. Free, no registration necessary. > Bilingual jobs in USA refine your search terms. Sort by: relevance - date. are looking for a High Energy Bilingual Customer Service Representative etc. This article investigates issues confronted by 31 foreign-educated Latino teachers, teaching in a high-needs Midwestern urban district while attaining U.S. certification. Latino Immigrant and Guest Bilingual Teachers: Overcoming Personal, Professional, and Academic Culture Shock Joan F. Fee Urban Education Overcoming Personal Cited by: Teacher Agency in Bilingual Spaces: A Fresh Look at Preparing Teachers to Educate Latina/o Bilingual Children Deborah Palmer ramón antonio martínez partly because Latino/a bilinguals make up the vast majority of bilinguals in the United States, and partly because our own work has centered on this particular community. Of course, not all.

Inupiaq is part of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. Kale Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking probably originated in the Bering Sea area, making Alaska the North American homeland of these peoples. Although there is a definite relationship between the Eskimo languages and Aleut, the split between the two Nyc fleetwood swingers probably at least 4, years old, so that the Aleut language is quite different from Eskimo in some important respects.

The Eskimo languages proper can be divided into two branches, Yupik and Inuit or Inupiaq.

Two-way Bilingual Education and Latino Students California State University, East Bay Two-way bilingual immersion (TWBI) programs have demonstrated great success in improving Latino English learners’ educational outcomes. Nevertheless, TWBI classrooms Latino English learners is often based on politics rather than on sound educational. This article investigates issues confronted by 31 foreign-educated Latino teachers, teaching in a high-needs Midwestern urban district while attaining U.S. certification. Latino Immigrant and Guest Bilingual Teachers: Overcoming Personal, Professional, and Academic Culture Shock Joan F. Fee Urban Education Overcoming Personal Cited by: Rosalie Porter, author of "The Case Against Bilingual Education," additionally points out that this was the first time that the Federal Government "dictated" how non-English speaking students should be educated .

There are three Yupik languages in Alaska: Lawrence Island in Alaska and on the Chukchi Peninsula in Soviet Siberia actually, the three forms of Eskimo termed Siberian Yupik are probably different enough to be called three different languages. The second branch of the Eskimo language family, Inuit or Inupiaq is considered a single language which extends across the Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking regions of the western hemisphere from the Latini Strait to Greenland.

Neighboring dialects of Inuit are usually quite similar and neighboring groups can understand one another easily, but some individual dialects may have unique characteristics which make it difficult for other Inuit to understand them. Dialects Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking different Lady want hot sex Lothian any others in Inuit, for example, are found in both geographic ends of' the Inuit area, on the Diomede Islands and in East Greenland.

At this point we should explain what linguists mean by "language" and "dialect. Dialect differences distinguish particular groups within a language community, generally based on such factors as geography, socioeconomic Single women wants nsa Sterling Heights, or ethnic origin.

American English includes all three types of dialects; Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking example, New Yorkers and Texans often have identifiable geographical dialects, members of the upper class on the East Coast may speak with an accent or vocabulary that sets them apart, and ethnic groups like Mexican-Americans or Irish-Americans may have distinct features in their speech. Inuit dialects, on the other hand, are almost exclusively regional or geographical. What distinguishes a dialect from a language is that people who speak different dialects of the same language can generally understand one another, while people who speak different languages cannot unless they are bilingual.

Languages may be related, like English and German or Yupik and Inupiaq, but if they are truly separate languages, they are different enough so that communication between them is hampered. In this way, we find that Central Yupik and Inupiaq are related but different languages, while Kobuk Inupiaq and Barrow Inupiaq, whose speakers can understand each other, are different dialects of the same language. Within Alaskan Inupiaq there are two Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking dialect groups, each with two dialects.

North Alaskan Inupiaq includes the North Slope dialect spoken along the Arctic coast as far south as Kivalina and the Malimiut dialect Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking south of Kivalina in and around Kotzebue, along the Kobuk River, and at the head of Norton Sound, especially in Koyuk and Unalakleet.

The Nunamiu dialect, found primarily at Anaktuvuk Pass, is transitional between the North Slope and Malimiut dialects.

The other major dialect group is Seward Peninsula Meet bi women in Marthasville Missouri, found on the Seward Peninsula and in the area of Norton Sound; this group includes the Bering Strait dialect spoken on King Island and the Diomedes and in the coastal villages north and west of Nome and the Qawiaraq dialect spoken in Teller near the original place educatd Qawiaraq and in the villages west and south of Nome as far as Unalakleet.

The earliest writing of Inupiaq took place when explorers first arrived in Alaska and began recording words in the native languages they encountered. They wrote in a manner which adapted the spelling of their own language, or of other languages they knew, to the new language they were recording.

Spelling was therefore often inconsistent, since the writers were often making it up as they went along. Unfamiliar sounds were in make cases omitted or else confused with other sounds, so that Eskimo q was frequently not distinguished from kand long consonants or vowels were not distinguished from short Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking, e.

Writing of the language by Inupiaqs did not begin until the missionaries arrived and began translating religious materials into the Native languages. Writing was at first based on English and so was not optimally suited to the sound system of' Inupiaq.

Written materials Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking nevertheless readable by those who knew the language. It was not until the s that anyone attempted to decide on a coherent and accurate writing system for the language which would allow spelling to be standardized. It is interesting to note as well that Greenlandic Eskimo, a near relative of Alaskan Inupiaq, has a Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking history of literacy, written by missionaries since the eighteenth century and with a standard orthography which dates back to the mid-nineteenth century.

A spelling reform in the s improved and updated the old Greenlandic writing system. It is difficult to say why a language dies out in one area and continues to be spoken in another. Did some greater outside pressure place Inupiaq in jeopardy while neighboring Central Yupik remained viable?

While comparing their situations yields only inconclusive results, it Single mature seeking fucking online dating girls useful to an understanding of the current situation of Inupiaq to explain the events and influences that have shaped modern-day Inupiaq culture.


Europeans arrived in the Inupiaq region later than in more southerly parts of Alaska. The Russians, who Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking themselves in Alaska in the mid-eighteenth century, did not have much direct contact with the Inupiaqs, except at their settlement of St. Although the Russians did not travel much north of this area, their goods did, along with the Russian names for them. In areas heavily influenced by the Russians, Russian-derived names for such things as soap, flour, tea, and sugar are still in use more than a century after the Russians' departure.

Going from south to north in the Inupiaq area, one finds fewer and fewer Russian loan words, from dozens in Unalakleet to only two in Barrow. The first large wave of outsiders to reach northern Alaska were whaling crews.

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They were ethnically quite mixed, including Hawaiians also known as Kanakaswhite Americans, Scandinavians, and the so-called Portuguese, who were mostly Portuguese-speaking Blacks from the Cape Verde Islands off West Africa. The whalers had a profound effect Whores in Rochester Minnesota the Inupiaq groups they Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking for a number of reasons.

First, they were competing for whales, which had already been driven almost to extinction by whalers in the Eastern Arctic. Eskimo whalers in fact adopted many technological innovations from the old whaling ships.

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The whaling crews also brought with them disease and alcohol, resulting in disastrous epidemics and introducing the scourge of alcoholism to people whose culture had no previous experience of addictive intoxicants. Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking whaling in the Arctic ended shortly after the turn of the century. A few decades before, a concerted effort to influence and change Native Alaskan culture had begun in the form of missionization.

There has been much debate about the role of missionaries and their long-term effects on Alaska, but in any Bilingual educated Juneau latino male looking, it seems clear that most of them misunderstood and failed to respect the traditional systems of beliefs they encountered when they arrived.